In medical ethics, autonomy is the principle that respect for a patient’s wishes regarding their medical care should take precedence. This includes both the right of patients to make decisions about their own health care, and the responsibility of health care providers to ensure that patients are given information about their condition and treatment options in a way that they can understand.
The concept of autonomy is important in health care because it ensures that patients are treated as individuals with their own preferences and values. It also recognizes that patients have a right to make decisions about their own health care, and that these decisions should be respected by health care providers.
There are a number of ways in which autonomy can be promoted in health care. For example, patients should be given clear and concise information about their condition and treatment options. They should also be given the opportunity to ask questions and express their concerns.
In addition, health care providers should ensure that patients are involved in decision-making about their care. This includes giving patients the opportunity to participate in discussions about their treatment options and to make decisions about their care.
The principle of autonomy is important in health care because it ensures that patients are treated as individuals with their own preferences and values.
Patients are usually allowed to make their own decisions about which interventions or services to receive as a result of the principle of autonomy. We argue that a strong emphasis on decision-making situations is problematic, especially when combined with the emphasis on patients’ independence. The concept of autonomy is also brought up in discussions about confidentiality, fidelity, privacy, and truth-telling. Patients have a strong preference for making their own health care decisions and are heavily associated with this concept. Autonomous decisions, according to Beauchamp and Childress’ influential definition, are those made intentionally and without control and with deep understanding and freedom of influence. Choosing between health care options may feel abandoned rather than autonomous to patients who may struggle. In these situations, it is more likely to overlook other areas of autonomy that are lacking in patients with a strong focus on decisions.
In some cases, pregnant women must change their lifestyles and submit to judgemental monitoring by health professionals in order to receive care. According to relational accounts, our ability to make decisions on our own is socially and situationally determined. Several forms of social influence can have an impact on someone’s ability to live a more fulfilling and fulfilling life, according to the researchers. Despite the difficulty of defining what is genuinely our own, relational accounts recognize that we may have multiple identities. If clinical interventions are accompanied by honest and meaningful explanations of their primary points of view, as well as facilitation of personal assessments of their appropriateness and scope for discussion, they are more likely to be autonomy-supportive. misappropriations of ideas are a threat to the ethical norms of respect for autonomy because they can encourage inappropriate paternalism. A greater specification of the concept of respect for autonomy could be achieved with the integration of relational understandings of patient autonomy.
They stress the importance of health care interactions in determining patients’ self-identities, plans for their future, and autonomy. Consider the possibilities that they provide for reconsidering health care autonomy and the context in which clinical ethics and patient decision-making work. A conflict of interest statement must be made. The authors do not know of any conflicts of interest that may interfere with the development or reporting of their scholarly work, whether directly or indirectly, purposefully or inadvertently. It was part of a conference hosted by and held at Stirling University on enhancing decision-making in healthcare practice.
Healthcare professionals can improve patient outcomes and efficiency by understanding the unique autonomy preferences of each patient, which can lead to greater efficiency and patient satisfaction.
A nurse’s autonomy can be enhanced by clearly communicating and organizing their work so that they have the ability to make sound clinical decisions as an individual.
Patients undergoing surgery may need to adjust their pain medication, treatment plan, or other necessities to make them feel more at ease once they reach post-op care. In addition to this type of support, nurses can help both the doctor and the patient by providing this type of assistance without consulting with them.
What Is Patient Autonomy And Why Is It Important?
The right of a patient to make medical decisions without interference from their healthcare provider. Patient autonomy allows health care providers to educate patients while not allowing them to make the decision for themselves.
In this case, the patient fears pain, suffering, impending loss of functional ability, and loss of autonomy. Dr. Barelle should consider how to maintain both his autonomy and the family’s intentioned role in his care. Dr. Barelle’s position is difficult because she is newly involved in Dave’s care and has no prior experience with establishing a foundation for these discussions. What is the appropriate nature and scope of autonomy and the role of family members in a case like Dave’s? Keeping an eye on the possibility of this dynamic and attempting to advocate for the patient to allow him or her to have full freedom of choice is a critical component of good clinical care. Dr. Barelle has described what aggressive care and comfort care will look like, and Dave appears to be aware of the different treatment options. Dr. Barrelle would be held legally responsible for following the wishes of the patient as a result of undue influence from family members.
Dr. Barelle can remind Dave that his family may be more accepting of his treatment options than he believes. Dr. Barelle and Dave’s oncologist should consult to determine which course of action is best for Dave and his family. When a patient’s care is divided among multiple clinicians, the best thing for all of them to do is to speak with one another about the case. The physician-patient relationship is the act of a physician acting in the best interests of his or her patient. Dr. Barelle should consult with Dave’s family to determine how medical information and his values will be presented to them. Even if he refuses to talk directly to his family about his desire to avoid aggressive therapy, he should discuss how to persuade them that he does not wish to engage in this type of treatment. If this is the case, the family may be able to reach a mutually acceptable resolution. A more detailed discussion about Dave’s vision and values at the end of his life may help him and his family find more common ground, or even a certain level of comfort disagreeing with one another. In this case, involving social workers and chaplains could be a good way to break the tension.
It is the degree to which a person feels in control of his or her life. In addition to controlling her emotions, Carmelita may be able to control her movements. This may appear to be a more difficult goal for some people than for others.
The ability to make decisions based on one’s beliefs and values is referred to as volition. Carmelita possesses a strong sense of volition, and it is her ability to make decisions based on her values and beliefs that propel her.
There are several options available in the marketplace that are tailored to your preferences. Carmelita has a wide range of options when it comes to her values and beliefs.
How Is Autonomy Used In Healthcare?
In healthcare, autonomy is often used to refer to the independence of patients to make decisions about their own care. This includes decisions about treatment options, what kind of information to share with their healthcare providers, and whether or not to participate in research studies. Healthcare providers also have a certain degree of autonomy in how they practice medicine and provide care to their patients.
The concept of autonomy is one of the most important concepts in medical ethics. Despite this, developing an account of autonomy that would be theoretically satisfying has been difficult. In terms of autonomy, bioethical discussions frequently rely heavily on actions theorists’ conception, which is far less precise than the conception of autonomy developed by action theorists. As a result, it may become less effective because it does not provide consistent guidance. The emphasis on authenticity should inform accounts of autonomy, which are used to discuss medical practice in general, according to a theory proposed by Lucie White. According to Weimer, a patient who has been able to consent to her treatment but is unable to evaluate whether she can continue does not have full autonomy over her treatment. According to Roberts, the concept of competence is better positioned than autonomy to play an important role in medical ethics, in which the latter is frequently used.
According to John K. Davis, a practicing physician, patients who have formulated a diagnosis or treatment plan prior to a medical appointment are not truly competent. Patients should be paired with physicians who share their values in order not to require any nudging, according to James Hamilton. Thomas May and Harold Grotevant, in their paper, argue that providing genetic-relative family health histories to patients with a concern for their well-being is justified. Maura Priest examines how the current health care system’s approach to autonomy affects doctors and patients. The Special Issue on Autonomy is a journal published by James Stacey Taylor’s Department of Philosophy, Religion, and Classical Studies at The College of New Jersey in Ewing, New Jersey. The Special Issue’s goal is to contribute to both the theoretical understanding of autonomy and the debates that result from it.
Employees who have the autonomy to set their own schedules can do so at their leisure, taking control of their lives and careers. As a result, they can work more efficiently and be happier with their work. Companies can also save money on employee salaries by not having to hire temporary workers to fill in for absent or flexible-work employees, as well as by not having to pay out wages for temporary workers.
Autonomy, in addition to being important, is an essential component of a happy workplace. Employees have the freedom to schedule their work in ways that will allow them to be more productive and satisfied.
How Do You Promote Autonomy In Patients?
As a result, respect for autonomy is typically associated with allowing or enabling patients to choose which health care interventions they wish to receive or which they do not wish to receive.
Autonomy entails being able to manage your own decisions without the help of others. In the eyes of many, it is an important step in the maturity process. Many physicians seek to involve patients in order to assist them in understanding the treatment options available. An healthcare provider can educate patients while also making decisions for them, but this does not mean they have complete control over the patient. Choosing a doctor will enable your patient to make his or her own decisions. The treatment relationship must be structured in such a way that it works effectively. Failure to respect your autonomy will have a negative impact on your health care. By making a list of what is important to you, you can make a more informed decision about how to treat yourself.
Empowering Patients Through Informed Choice
Patients in nursing care are given the ability to make health-care decisions based on the principle of competence. Nurses’ responsibilities include respect for patients’ autonomy and assisting them in making informed decisions about their care. The nurse’s goal is to ensure that patients have access to all of the relevant information relevant to their treatment, and that they can communicate effectively with their doctors and other healthcare providers.
What Are The 3 Basic Elements Of Autonomy?
Autonomy can be classified into three types based on its ability to be independent, autonomous, and rational.
Autonomy, according to moral philosophy and bioethics, recognizes human ability to self-determine. The concept of amity, as well as the concept of a basic right and an essential value, is a core part of the liberal individualism moral and political theory. One of the issues at stake is autonomy for individual patients, which conflicts with healthcare professionals’ responsibilities to patients. A person’s agency is determined by how well he or she can act, as opposed to how well he or she can act on a daily basis. It is not the absence of influences that allows a person to control what he or she does without fear of what others will think about him or her. It is not as simple as being able to manipulate or coercion, but there are limits to options in the social and physical world. The concept of autonomy does not have anything to do with the independence of individuals.
The following is a citation from John Stuart Mill’s On Liberty (1947). It is not acceptable to interfere with someone else’s right to take action in order to avoid harm to others. Individuals, organizations, and governments are legally justified in making this obligation a binding obligation. One of Immanuel Kant’s versions of the categorical imperative is that of respect for autonomy, which is to treat others and oneself, never as a means but always as an end in itself. This phrase is frequently used to describe treating others as individuals. Those who are autonomous are interested in things such as preferences, projects, and goals. A negative right is a right that is not explicitly provided to the person.
When it comes to autonomy, everyone has the obligation not to coerce or interfere with another person’s actions in any way. The cost of protecting autonomy is less than the cost of recognizing positive autonomy rights in social institutions. The ideal of autonomy does not require individuals to make decisions before taking any action. Actions are classified by degree based on agency and rationality, which is why they are classified by degree. According to Ruth Faden and her colleagues, three elements of autonomy are intentionality, freedom from controlling influence, and understanding. Despite this, the ability of a patient to make a decision at any level is subjective. The concept of competence, which is similar to autonomy, is a legal concept.
It is critical to remember that a patient’s decision to consent to or refuse treatment is autonomous in part because it contains more than just his or her statement of decision and reasons. Medicine protects a patient’s right to control information about themselves, which is in addition to the patient’s right to confidentiality when health professionals obtain information about themselves. A patient has the right to autonomy, as well as to be informed of their medical condition and prognosis. Patients may violate their obligations to maintain and restore their health if they are given greater autonomy, according to some. It has also been proposed that autonomy should be examined in terms of communitarian thought. The patient is frequently required to provide information on values, objectives, and preferences as part of a patient evaluation. It is applicable not only in morally difficult situations involving a dying person, but also in situations involving other people’s lives.
Some argue that liberalism is incompatible with the liberal democratic ideal. A person that decides his or her own values, preferences, and desires is not a self that chooses. To be autonomous, it necessitates language and reasoning, and these abilities cannot be developed unless socially accepted practices and standards are followed. We would not want to live in a society where no one cares more about one another’s liberal rights than we do about ourselves. Love and care can stifle if they do not recognize an individual’s perception of what they are capable of. Gerald Dworkin’s novel, “The Mysterious Sea.” The Theory and Practice of Autonomy by Edward Said Jay Kall’s book “Kall’s Revenge” was published in 1984.
The Silent World of Doctor and Patient Youngner, Stuart Jackson and David L. Jackson In its most basic form, this is patient autonomy and “dignity in death.” John Stuart Mill On Liberty, a work by John Dewey. Aubrey Castell was a well-known singer who died in 1986. The New England Journal of Medicine 301(8): 404-408. Alasdair MacIntyre, In The Perspective Of Alasdair MacIntyre, 1981. Autonomy, as practiced by people, doctors, and medical professionals. ” Sher, George” was written by George in 1989.
Our three-tiered approach to social participation focuses on involvement in three areas. Philosophy and Public Affairs 18(2) (pp. 133-151), pp. Charles Taylor was born in 1985. Atomism is an emotion. Philosophical Papers: Volume 1. Philosophy and Human Sciences are the two main fields of study.
A person has the right to make his or her own health care decisions, which include where and how he or she is treated. Some patients, due to the influence of their doctors and other healthcare professionals, are unable to make these decisions on their own.
We can use a variety of strategies to promote patient autonomy. Creating a culture that values patient autonomy is an option. This can be accomplished by establishing a system in which patients are encouraged to ask questions and express their opinions. It is also critical to provide patients with accurate information about their health condition in order for them to be well.
A resource that assists patients in making informed decisions is another way to increase patient autonomy. This section should include information about the treatments and their risks and benefits. In addition, it is critical that patients have access to current and accurate information about their health conditions.
Patients’ autonomy is an essential component of ensuring that they receive the best possible care. By encouraging patients to be more independent, we can help them make better health care decisions.
The Three Types Of Autonomy
The three types of autonomy are behavioral, emotional, and cognitive autonomy. A person who is capable of acting independently is referred to as behavioral autonomy. There is a distinction to be made between emotional autonomy and emotional intelligence. The ability to think for oneself is referred to as cognitive autonomy.
In basic autonomy, a person is regarded as only capable of being responsible, independent, and allowed to speak for themselves. It is important to remember that ideal autonomy, which is an achievement that serves as a goal for which we may aspire, is an outcome that can be characterized by manipulative behaviors that are both self-defeating and maximally authentic.
autonomy necessitates a person’s ability to feel and experience emotions as well as act for oneself. It is also important to be able to think for ourselves because this allows us to make decisions and determine our own destiny. All three of these types of autonomy are essential for a successful life and are necessary to self-governance.
Patient Autonomy In Nursing
Patients with decision-making capacity have the right to make their own decisions about their care, even when those decisions contradict their clinicians’ recommendations, as demonstrated by the autonomy principle.
Over the last few years, patient autonomy in nursing and healthcare has gained traction. In this chapter, we examine the complicated reality of patient autonomy in the context of healthcare and nursing practice. Finally, the chapter proposes some ideas for balancing professional accountability and patient autonomy. A portion of the study’s funding came from the School of Nursing and Human Sciences, Dublin City University, and the Science Foundation Ireland. The authors would like to express their appreciation for Professor P. Anne Scott’s assistance as a co-supervisor on the referenced PhD project. Acknowledgements are also extended to personnel at the Health Information and Quality Authority (Ireland) for their contributions during the Autonomy Guidance project. It is our hope that the ideas presented will benefit patients, health and social service providers, and academic colleagues.
Patient Autonomy: The Right To Make Decisions About Medical Care.
What is a patient’s autonomy?
The right of patients to choose their own medical care is referred to as patient autonomy, and it allows them to choose their own treatment rather than being influenced by their doctors. Patients should have the best chance at making the best decision for themselves by promoting patient autonomy. One of the methods for fostering patient autonomy is through relational thinking.
Patient Autonomy Law
Patient autonomy law is a set of principles and regulations that protect a patient’s right to make their own decisions about their own healthcare. This includes the right to refuse or choose medical treatment, the right to information about their condition and treatment options, and the right to privacy.
What Is Patient Autonomy Act?
According to this principle, patients have the right and ability to make their own medical decisions and treatment decisions, as long as those decisions are made within the bounds of law. Until a court determines otherwise, it is presumed that they are fit and competent to make such decisions.
What Are The Legal Implications Of Autonomy?
The act of acting voluntarily and understanding the consequences of what you do is a measure of autonomy, which means that the patient has the capacity to give informed consent. Patients should not be placed in situations where they are at risk of being harmed or injured as a result of being non-maleficenced.
Are There Limits To Patient Autonomy?
A person who is self-determining is free to grant permission for medical treatment or procedure without making any reservations. When someone takes control of the decision-making process, autonomy is terminated. Due to one’s cultural and traditional beliefs, one is restricted in his or her freedom.
Examples Of Autonomy In Healthcare
There are many examples of autonomy in healthcare. One example is when a patient is able to make their own decisions about their care. This could include decisions about treatment options, medications, or other aspects of their care. Another example is when healthcare professionals are able to make decisions about how to best care for their patients without interference from others. This could include decisions about what treatments to use, what diagnostic tests to order, or how to best communicate with patients and their families.
Do we really have the power to make the decisions about our health care? When can a patient that is at the end of their care cycle not have control over their care? Autonomy, an ethical principle that is highly valued in personal healthcare decision-making, is important for all people. When Autonomy is concerned with people, self determination, or self governance, it should be considered. Autonomy has limitations if it causes harm to another person or if it is dangerous to the patient. When harm to others is so grave that it violates the principle of autonomy, it is permissible. Autonomy should not be viewed as a patient-controlled decision-making system, but rather as an educational system that seeks to ensure that the patient is well cared for.
When Can Patient Autonomy Be Overruled
When patient autonomy can be overruled? This is a difficult question to answer. In general, patient autonomy should be respected and patients should be free to make their own decisions about their care. However, there are some circumstances when patient autonomy may be overruled. For example, if a patient is not competent to make decisions about their care, or if their decisions could result in serious harm to themselves or others, then their autonomy may be overruled.
When Scott Daley was discovered, he was semi-conscious and had a cut on his head. There was a slight alcohol buildup, but he was alert and aware of his surroundings. According to Dr. Avery, Mr. Daley sustained a minor laceration on his forehead as a result of the incident. A CT scan would be necessary to ensure that there was no skull fracture or intracranial bleeding. The physician considered restraining a patient who would face a life-threatening head injury if he did not want to be restrained. A person’s ability to make informed decisions and deliberate on those decisions determines their ability to make decisions. When a patient refuses to accept medical treatment as recommended, their ability to function is frequently jeopardized.
A physician must determine whether or not a patient has the ability to make decisions. Alcohol intoxication is a red flag that indicates a possible impairment of the ability to function normally. Some patients, in both their right and left senses, are willing to recognize and comprehend the consequences of their decisions. If the patient is unable to manage his or her own affairs, it is recommended that he or she be restrained until a more complete capacity evaluation is completed.
Under What Circumstances May Autonomy Be Overridden?
Now, we’re at the point where autonomy is restricted: autonomy is limited when its exercise causes harm to others or if it has the potential to harm patients. When harm to others is severe enough to violate autonomy, it goes against it. There may be instances in which the team is unable to fully comply with autonomous decisions.
How To Help Someone Who Has Lost Their Autonomy
Some people may lose their autonomy due to a variety of factors. A person may be unable to perform a task due to a physical disability, may be too old or frail to do so, or may be too young or uneducated to make the decision on their own.
People caring for or caring for an elderly person who is no longer independent should be concerned about losing their independence. It can be difficult for those who care for a loved one to understand how to help them retain their autonomy, and it can be frustrating for those who see their loved one failing to take care of themselves.
Allowing someone to retain their independence by providing them with support and assistance with daily tasks, as well as guidance and advice, is a very important part of this process.
It is difficult to comprehend the loss of autonomy in someone who has lost their independence, and caregivers should be prepared to provide care and support until they are regaining their independence.
How Can Patient Autonomy Be Violated?
When family members or members of a healthcare team pressure or act in a non-emergency manner without the patient’s consent, the patient’s autonomy is violated.
Can Doctors Override Patients’ Wishes?
Can doctors actually do what patients want or need them to do?
The ethical debate over whether doctors can change patients’ wishes is a topic of discussion. A patient may request aggressive interventions in the event of a major change in his or her medical condition and expected outcome. When a doctor proposes an intervention for a patient, he or she must assess whether the intervention is in the patient’s best interests, as well as whether he or she is well aware of all of the risks and benefits. Physician autonomy is valued in the context of patients’ autonomy, as physicians must provide them with information about the risks and benefits of a proposed intervention in order for them to make informed decisions.
What Justifies Overriding A Patients Autonomy?
The patient is likely to be severely harmed, or to be harmed without intervention, in a situation where his or her rationality is impaired (autonomy condition); or he or she is likely to be severely harmed in a situation where he or she is harmed without intervention.
Patients Must Have Intentionality, Understanding, And Freedom To Make Autonomous Decisions.
Patients must be intentional in order to make autonomous decisions, which means they must be aware of their desires and intentions and able to act on them. Patients must have understanding in order to comprehend the situation and context, which means they must comprehend the consequences of their actions as well as the situations. Finally, patients should not be subjected to external and internal control, which can result in coercion and intimidation.
Can Beneficence Override Autonomy?
When it comes to individual interaction, the self-learning process discovers that autonomy is appropriate for individuals but must be exercised in the name of good health in order to achieve this.
The Tension Between Physician Beneficence And Patient Autonomy
The doctor performed an evaluation on the patient’s blood pressure, which was found to be abnormally high. Following that, the doctor offered to prescribe medication to lower blood pressure. The patient was unwilling to take the medication, and instead wanted to figure out how to lower his/her blood pressure on his/her own.
Physician beneficence and patient autonomy frequently have a conflict. Despite the doctor’s desire for the best interests of the patient, he or she does not want to jeopardize the patient’s autonomy. The doctor balances these two interests while still providing the best possible care.
Patient Autonomy And Right To Refuse Treatment
If a competent patient declines treatment, he or she has the right to refuse it. Autonomy is supported not only by the ethical principle of autonomy, but also by U.S. statutes, regulations, and case law. Competent adults may refuse care for reasons other than saving or prolonging their lives.
Knowing one’s rights as a patient goes a long way toward establishing personal autonomy. When a competent adult is capable of making their own decisions, they have the right to refuse medical treatment. Autonomy is a component of American democratic law, as is the right of patients to make healthcare decisions. Every competent adult has the right to refuse or choose medical treatment. Patients have complete control over their own decisions based on ethical principles such as non-maleficence and justice. The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations is in charge of overseeing hospitals in the United States in terms of informing patients of their right to consent. The right to refuse or choose treatment is referred to as autonomy.
Doctors were able to treat patients against their will in the past few decades if they saw fit to do so. If a patient is given autonomy, they can request but do not demand preferred treatment. Among the competing imperatives are professional autonomy and hospital policies. A patient’s informed consent is the information that he or she gives prior to treatment. When we inform a patient about their options, we empower them to make the best decision for themselves. When a pregnant woman or the fetus has a medical condition that necessitates medical treatment that could and should not put both the mother and the fetus at risk, much thought must be given. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends that doctors provide patients with some form of directive counseling.
In the United States, it is a human right for people to refuse or choose treatment for medical conditions that are deemed medically necessary. When a patient has an Advanced Care Directive, Living Will, or Durable Power of Attorney in place, their right to self-determination will be protected, carried out, and carried out. The competence of a patient to make an objective decision is a critical issue in proper discernment. An assessment must be performed to determine whether the patient can make treatment decisions on their own. The patient must be aware of why they refuse treatment and why they want to avoid it. There is very little research on why and how patients refuse medical treatment. The majority of patients who refuse medical treatment are those suffering from chronic diseases, according to this study.
If the patient wishes to consent to or refuse treatment, he or she must be made aware of the decision. According to studies, the vast majority of refusing patients do not understand healthcare literacy. In addition, healthcare providers must inform patients about the benefits and risks of consenting or refusing treatment. The competent patient is given the right to self-governance when making health care decisions for the respect and rights of those who refuse medical treatment. It is not only their own best interests to refuse Coronavirus disease testing, but also the best interests of those around them. A review of how a healthcare system may respond to a patient’s refusal to undergo a test is intended to identify the most ethical aspects of this policy. In order to resolve citations to this publication, ResearchGate has been unable to do so.
In the emergency room, informed consent is required. Referencing informed consent, informed refusal of treatment is also used. It provides a clear understanding of the most important considerations for patients who refuse medical treatment. Research investigators can be more effective at making informed consent decisions if they have a template and training for making informed consent decisions. The concept of formal informed consent in healthcare has only recently taken root. The Nuremberg trial is explained in this paper as part of the modern history of informed consent. A recent study concludes that autonomy through informed consent is necessary and deserving of protection in bioethics.
The Patient Self-Determination Act (PSD Act) is a federal law that requires all healthcare professionals to comply with it. In many cases, patients with advanced chronic diseases are offered medical and surgical interventions with the potential for significant tradeoffs between benefits and disadvantages. The frequency or outcomes of treatment refusal are unknown among these patients. This article examines the history of the act and how health care professionals are expected to implement and enforce it.
The Right To Refuse Medical Treatment Is A Fundamental Principle
It is a fundamental principle of human liberty to refuse medical treatment, which is universally recognized. This right is not always respected. If a patient is unable to competently communicate or if providers insist on continuing treatment, they can prevent an attempt to refuse.
The Patient Self-Determination Act (PSDA) ensures that life-sustaining treatment cannot be discontinued at the end of life. Patients who have the ability to make decisions have the right to do so even if their decisions are contrary to their doctors’ recommendations, according to autonomy principles.